The name of this Association shall be the Philippine Dental Association Inc. which hereinafter may also be referred to as the or this Association.
Sec. 1 The members of this Association shall be dentists of Filipino citizenship who are members of Constituent Chapters of the Philippine Dental Association, and who have complied with the requirements of membership provided for in the By-Laws of this Association except for the associate, honorary and affiliate member as defined in Article XII, Section 1 of the By-Laws.
Sec. 2 The membership in the Association shall be classified as follows: (a) Active, (b) Associate, (c) Honorary, (d) Life, (e) Affiliate, (f) Auxillary.
Sec. 1 The officers of the Association shall be the elected members of the Board of Trustees, the Treasurer, the Auditor, the elected and appointed officers of the House of Delegates; the Council of PDA Presidents, and the members of the Commission on Elections. (COMELEC) and the appointed representatives of the dental hygienists and dental technologists.
Sec.2 The election of officers of the Association shall be held during the Annual Convention.
Sec. 3 The elective officers of the Association shall serve for one year.
Sec. 4 The appointive officers of the Association shall serve or hold office at the discretion of the President upon approval of the Board of Trustees, except that the COMELEC which shall hold office for the tenure provided for in this Constitution and/or its By-Laws.
Sec. 1 There shall be a Board of Trustees which shall be the administrative and governing body of the Association.
Sec. 2 There shall be a House of Delegates which shall be the legislative body of the Association.
Sec. 3 There shall be a Council of the PDA Presidents which shall be the consultatory and advisory body of the Association.
Sec. 4 There shall be a Council of the HOD Speakers which shall be the regular advisory body of the PDA in particular the House of Delegates.
Sec. 1 The Association shall consist of duly chartered constituent provincial and/or city chapters and such other organizations as may be affiliated to it.
Sec. 2 For effective administration, supervision, and control, the Philippines shall be divided into four regions, to be represented in the Board of Trustees by a Vice President each for Northern Luzon*, Southern Luzon*, Visayas and Mindanao.
Sec. 3 These regional administrative divisions in the country and organizations may also be sub-divided into as many districts for effective supervision and coordination by their respective district councilors.
Sec. 1 The Association shall hold an annual convention as specified in ARTICLE XXIII of this by-Laws. (as Amended on November 19, 2011)
Sec. 2 The Board of Trustees shall hold a monthly meeting every second Friday of the month.
Sec. 3 The House of Delegates shall hold regular sessions every national convention of any fiscal year, and hold Mid-Year sessions and conventions if needed provided that the venue should be accessible to all delegates and subject to availability of funds (As amended on April 30, 2008)
Sec. 4 The fiscal year starts June1 and ends May 31 of the following year. (As amended on November 19, 2011)
Sec. 5 Meetings of the Board of Trustees may be called by the President, or upon written notice of at least five (5) members of the Board of Trustees.
Sec. 6 Members of both the Board of Trustees and the House of Delegates may hold its regular or special meetings at any place even outside the place where the principal office is located provided members are issued proper notice indicating the date, time and place of the meeting and provided further that the place of meeting shall be within the Philippines.
(N.B* – Northern Luzon represents part of NCR such as Antipolo, Quezon City, Kalookan City, Marikina, Mandaluyong City, San Juan, Malabon, Valenzuela and the rest of the provinces North of Luzon including the AFP Dental Society and the Philippine National Police Dental Society – Southern Luzon represents the other part of NCR such as the City of Manila, Pasig City, Makati City, Muntinlupa City, Parañaque City, Pasay City, Las Piñas City and all provinces and cities South of Luzon)
Sec. 7 A simple majority of the voting members of the Board of Trustees present at a meeting and/or the accredited voting delegates present at a session of the House of Delegates shall constitute a quorum to do business, except in case provided by law.
Sec. 1. For Dentists
a. There shall be a Commission on Election or COMELEC, an independent body which shall regulate and conduct the election of the Association and hear election protests and whose decision shall be final.
b. Other policies done by the Comelec not included in the PDA Constitution must be presented first to the incumbent Board prior to implementation.
c. Such presentation should be at least two months prior to campaign period.
Sec. 2 The above mentioned provisions goes also with the organization of dental hygienists and dental technologists.
Sec. 1 The central office of the Philippine Dental Association, Inc. shall be in the building of the PDA located within Metro Manila.
Sec. 1 The Association shall adopt an official emblem as registered with the heraldry Commission of the Republic of the Philippines.
Sec. 2 The emblem of the Association shall be adopted by constituent chapters, organization of dental hygienists and dental technologists provided that the name of the constituent chapters, organization of dental hygienists and dental technologists shall appear below it as a basis for its official seal in the banner, logo in the letterhead and displayed whenever appropriate.
Sec. 3 The constituent chapter banner bearing the emblem of the Association shall be lavender, 29″ x 43″ and its illustration, color scheme and letterings shall be uniform and of standard size.
Sec. 4 The association shall provide the official banner for its constituent chapters/affiliates, organization of dental hygienists and dental technologists.
Sec. 1 The Constitution or any part thereof may be amended by a two thirds (2/3) vote of the voting delegates present at a session of the House provided, however, that such documents shall be submitted to a postal and/or electronic mail referendum or ratification by the members of the Association meeting at a General Assembly. Effectivity date shall be 60 days from the date of approval.
Sec. 1 Should conflict arise in the Parliamentary proceedings and conduct of meetings in the Association, the “Parliamentary Rules” by Antonio Orendain shall be the guide.
Sec. 1 Qualifications
a. The active member – is any member duly licensed to practice in the Philippines; who is a member of the Philippine Dental Association in good standing, and duly registered as such through a Constituent Chapter, through area of practice, in accordance with the Code of Ethics of the Regulatory Code of Dentistry in the Philippines. 1)Dentist 2)Dental Hygienist 3)Dental Technologist.
b. Non-dentist member – is a dental hygienist and dental technologist as defined in Article 1, Section 4b and c and Article 4 Section 27 (a and b) of R.A. 9484.
c. The life member: The life member is one who has reached 60 years of age; one who has completed ten (10) years of continuous and exemplary membership in good standing; and/or conferred the title of life member by the House of Delegates upon recommendation of the Board of Trustees. Past presidents and speakers who have fully completed his/her term of office shall automatically be granted life membership.
d. The associate member: Any member of the allied health profession who, by his contribution to the advancement of the dental profession may be admitted by the House of Delegates as Associate Member upon recommendation by the Board of Trustees.
e. The honorary member: The honorary member is one who has made an outstanding contribution to the state of oral health and the advancement of the art and science of dentistry in the Philippines. The House of Delegates upon recommendation of the Board of Trustees may elect him as Honorary member of the Association.
f. The Affiliate Member: is a licensed dentist from a foreign country who desires to be a member of the Association provided he/she passes the eligibility requirements and acceptance procedures set forth by the Board of Trustees. Upon acceptance, he/she shall pay the required acceptance fee and other dues prescribed as well by the Board of Trustees.
Sec. 2 Privileges
a. An active member shall: (1) have the right to vote provided they are registered as PDA member; (2) receive the publication of the Association; (3) be entitled to attend scientific sessions, seminars, symposia, etc. of the Association, (4) be eligible for any elective or appointive position in the Association, provided, that it shall be in accordance with the provisions of Art. XIII, Sec. 2 of the By-Laws, and (5) be entitled to receive benefits of the Welfare and Trust Fund.
b. The Life Member shall: (1) be exempted from paying the annual membership dues; (2) have the right to vote; (3) receive a Certificate of Life Membership; (4) be entitled to all privileges of an active member in good standing, (5) be eligible to any elective or appointive position in the Association provided, that it shall be in accordance with the provisions of Art. XIII Sec. 2 of the By-Laws. (6) Be entitled to receive benefits of the Welfare and Trust Fund, subject to availability of funds.
c. The Associate member shall: (1) receive the PDA Journal regularly, and (2) be privileged to attend the scientific sessions, seminars, symposia, etc. of the Association and may be granted such other privileges as the House of Delegates and Board of Trustees may extend him.
d. The Honorary Member shall: (1) receive a Certificate of Honorary Membership, and a free subscription to the PDA Journal, and (2) he may attend any or all programs of the Association.
e. The Affiliate Member shall: (1) receive the PDA Journal regularly and (2) be privileged to attend the scientific sessions, seminars symposia, etc. of the Association and may be granted such other privileges as the House of Delegates and Board of Trustees may extend to him.
f. Non-dentist members shall receive the PDA Bulletin, allowed to attend scientific sessions, seminars, symposia, etc. of the Association.
Sec. 3 Limitation to one membership. A member shall hold only one type of membership.
Sec. 4 Member in Good Standing – is one who is a paid member in both the association and the constituent chapter or their respective professional organization. They should possess a valid PRC card and a valid PDA membership card.
Sec. 5 Membership Fees and Dues
a. Active membership fee: The Active Membership Fee covering the annual fee, shall be determined by the Board of Trustees, subject to confirmation by the House of Delegates. The active membership fee shall be allocated with percentage equivalent. All excess funds shall not be reverted to the general fund but will remain in its different allocation at the next fiscal year. (as Amended on November 19, 2011)
1. General Fund – 16.25%
2. Legal Affairs Fund – 11.25%
3. Chapter Rebates Fund – 3.75%
4. Comelec Fund – 1.25%
5. House of Delegates Fund – 5%
6. Publication – 6.25%
7. Continuing Education Fund – 6.25%
8. Welfare and Trust Fund – 50%
Increase in membership dues for the year when indicated will be determined by the Board as approved by the House of Delegates.
b. Non-dentist membership fee covering the annual fee shall be 70% of the active membership fee and shall be allocated the following percentage:
1. General Fund
2. Legal Affairs Fund
3. Rebates Fund
Continuing Education Fund
The amount of each entry will rely on the actual amount reflected on Active Membership Fee.
c. The annual convention dues shall be collected from the member of the Association registered at the convention in the amount that shall be determined by the Board of Trustees.
d. Charges other than annual convention dues may be collected from registrant attending continuing education lectures, table clinics, symposia, or the like sponsored by the Association at such time or place other than those held during the annual convention, and which amounts shall be subject to the approval of the Board of Trustees.
Sec. 1 The composition of the Board; Its elective members.
a) The Board of Trustees shall be composed of eighteen (18) members, namely the President, President-Elect, Executive Vice President, Vice President each for Northern Luzon, Southern Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao, and eleven (11) members of the Board of Trustees.
Sec. 2 Qualification of members of the Board
a) Must be of good moral character.
b) Must have at least 5 years of active membership in the PDA.
c) Must be at least 35 years old.
d) Must be a past or incumbent president of a chapter/affiliate.
e) Must have a written certification from its respective chapter/affiliate president and secretary.
f) Must be a bonafide member of the PDA and chapter/affiliate and in good standing for at least five consecutive years.
g) He or she must have submitted a report of activities during his/her incumbency as chapter/ affiliate president.
Sec. 3 Term of Office
a) A member of the Board shall hold office for a term of one year and shall continue to serve until his successor shall have been elected and duly qualified.
b) Any vacancy in the membership of the Board shall be filled up by the candidate receiving the next highest vote during the annual general election and shall serve for the unexpired term only.
c) The term of office of any member of the Board may be terminated with three (3) unjustifiable and unexcused absences in a series of six (6) consecutive regular meetings.
c.1 An official leave of absence may be filed for a maximum time of two months
d) Any member of the Board of Trustees except the president may be elected to the same office for only (3) three terms. However, he may be qualified to run for any other elective position in the Board or the House of Delegates. The president is eligible for only two (2) terms, however, he shall not run for re-election until after five (5) years.
e) The outgoing PDA President must fulfill his/her full term as Immediate Past President/Ex-Officio to the Executive Board before running for any elective position in the House of Delegates (as Amended on November 19, 2011)
f) All elected officers can be removed from office by a 2/3 vote of the House of Delegates after the recommendation of the 2/3 members of the Board only after serving 6 months of their term from installation without prejudice to impeachment proceedings as per Art. XXVI, Section 1, 2 and 3.
Sec. 4 Powers and Duties of the Board
The formulation and adoption of administrative policies governing the day to day operations of the Association shall be the inherent duty of the Board. Such policies shall be established according to the provisions of the Constitution and By-Laws of the Association, provisions of the Professional Regulatory Code, the Dental Law and such other decrees, instructions from duly authorized government agencies, and the laws of the land. It shall prudently manage the resources of the Association and exercise its corporate functions. When the House of Delegates is not in session, the Board may exercise in an ad interim capacity, such functions as (a) grant, amend, suspend, or revoke the charter of a constituent chapter, or charter of affiliation of an affiliated organization; (b) confer Associate, or Honorary membership, (c) and perform such other functions of the House as may be found necessary except legislate; provided, however, that all such actions taken shall be submitted to the House of Delegate at its earliest regular session for review and/or confirmation, or for whatever action as may warrant every particular case.
Sec. 5 The presiding officer of the Board of Trustees is the president, assisted by the secretary, who shall be the executive director.
ITS POWERS AND FUNCTIONS; COMPOSITION; OFFICERS AND THEIR TENURE; THEIR DUTIES AND OBLIGATIONS; THE SESSIONS OF THE HOUSE, AND DELEGATE ACCREDITATION.
Sec. 1 The Powers and Functions of the House of Delegates:
a) To legislate governing statutes of the Association is the sole right and function of the House of Delegates;
b) To propose amendments to the Constitution and By-Laws of the Association;
c) To recommend to the Board of Dentistry through the Board of Trustees, such measures as may be necessary for the implementation of the Code of Ethics for Dentists, Dental Hygienists and Dental Technologists in the Philippines, or any amendment thereof and other pertinent measures that may affect the practice of Dentistry Dental Hygiene and Dental Technology in the Philippines;
d) To duly review, confirm or disapprove the resolutions granting, amending, suspending or revoking the Charter of Constituency of PDA Chapter or the Chapter of Affiliation of any society or organization affiliated with the Association as recommended by the Board of Trustees.
e) To deliberate and act on the annual financial report of the Treasurer;
f) To deliberate and act on the annual report of the PDA President and chairman of the Board;
g) To deliberate and act on the PDA budget for the next fiscal year;
h) To confirm appointments of the members of the COMELEC and representatives of the dental hygienists and dental technologists to the Board of Trustees.
i) To review and act on actions of the Board in its interim capacity;
j) To confer honorary, Associate membership on persons duly recommended by the Board of Trustees;
k) To confer the Certificate of Life Member to members of the Association duly recommended by the Board of Trustees; andalusia
l) To elect its officers.
Sec. 2 The composition of the House of Delegates
a) The House of Delegates shall be composed of two voting delegates from each constituent Chapter of the Association, the President as chief delegate, and one official delegate of the chapter; The official delegate should be duly elected or appointed by his/her chapter and shall have a minimum tenure of three (3) years for purpose of continuity. Delegates from affiliate societies shall consist of: One (1) voting preferably by the Chief Delegate. One (1) non-voting but participating delegate.
b) There shall only be one delegate, preferably the president as chief delegate who shall be entitled to one vote from each society or organization affiliated with the Association.
c) The incumbent members of the Board of Trustees;
d) The alternate delegates: in the absence or incapacity of the Chief Delegate and or the official delegate, the president may certify the accreditation of the alternate delegate(s).
e) The national association of dental hygienists and dental technologists shall be represented by one delegate each with no voting rights.
Sec. 3 The elected officers of the House of Delegates are the Speaker, the Speaker Protempore, the Floor Leader and the Peace Officer. Their tenure is one year. The appointive officers of the House of Delegates are the Parliamentarian, House Secretary, House Administrator, the House Assistant Secretary and such other appointive staff members that are needed. Appointments are solely made by the Speaker of the House.
Only delegates representing the Constituent Chapter shall be elected into office in the House.
Sec. 4 Duties and obligations of the Officers of the House of Delegates:
a) The Speaker: The Speaker of the House of Delegates shall preside over the sessions of the House, sit or represent in the sessions of the Board to take cognizance of the ad-interim functions of the Board of Trustees; shall act as the parliamentarian of the Board of Trustees and to appoint the appointive officers of the House of Delegates.
b) The Speaker Protempore: The Speaker Protempore performs the functions of the Speaker in the latter’s absence or incapacity;
c) The Floor Leader: The Floor Leader prepares the agenda of the House of Delegates; receives from the chapters recommendations, resolutions and calendars the resolutions for deliberation and action during the session of the House;
d) The Peace Officer: The Peace Officer shall maintain order and decorum of the members of the House during the session.
e) The House Secretary – The House Secretary shall be responsible in the taking of record of the House proceedings and to furnish copies of the same the Office of the Executive Director. He/She shall be the Chairman of the Registration Committee. He/She shall present a report of activities as maybe required by the Speaker at any regular meeting or other occasions which needed such presentation. He/She shall perform such other duties that shall be assigned to him/her from time to time. (As amended on April 30, 2008)
f) Qualification of the Parliamentarian
a. Must be a past Speaker of the House of Delegates who completed his/her term of office.
b. One who is experienced and able in parliamentary procedures and debates.
c. One who is able to settle conflicting issues in accordance with the Constitution & By- Laws of the Association.
Duties and obligation of the Parliamentarian – acts as counsel to the Speaker and interprets constitutional provisions.
h) The House Assistant Secretary – Performs such duties and functions as may be assigned to him/her by the House Secretary; reports direct to the House Secretary.
i) The HOD Administrator- To oversee and monitor that the House of Delegates is on track of its plans and programs as scheduled. Manage the operations of the House of Delegates including the efficient performance of the duties of the HOD officers. He/She shall perform other tasks prescribe by the Speaker such other duties that shall be assigned to him/her from time to time by the Speaker of the House of Delegates.
j) The other staff members – shall be assigned tasks that are primarily supportive of the duties and functions of the Officers of the House provided that such assignments have been made known to and are approved by the Speaker of the House. Such staff members may be designated on a temporary basis (to assist the House Officers in special events or projects) or on a yearly basis.
Sec. 5 The Session of the House of Delegates
The House of Delegates shall hold a Mid-year Session, halfway through the administrative term or when exigency so requires and shall also hold a special session of the House of Delegates during area conventions.
The House of Delegates shall hold its End-of-the Term session during the Annual Convention and Scientific Meeting of the Association. Its End of the Term Session shall be divided into two: adjourning from the first half to the second as time shall permit without having conflict in the schedules of the session and the lectures and/or table clinics of the continuing education program of the convention.
The order of business in the first half of the session unless modified for valid reason shall be:
1. Call to ordered
2. Roll Call
3. Report of the Committee on Credentials
4. Reading and approval of the Minutes of the Previous Session
5. Approval of the Agenda and House Rules
6. Annual Report of the Treasurer
7. Annual Report of the President
8. Presentation of the Budget for the coming fiscal year
9. Speaker’s Time
10. New Business
11. Recess for the second half of the session
The order of business of the second half of the session shall be:
1. Call to order
2. Report of the Committee on Credentials
3. Unfinished Business
4. Election of Officers
5. Canvassing of Ballots
6. Proclamation of election results
Sec. 6 The Accreditation of Delegates
The official delegates of Constituent Chapter and of Societies affiliated with the Association shall present a certificate of accreditation to their being the duly elected or appointed delegates to the House and duly signed by the President and Secretary of his chapter or affiliated society.
Sec. 1 Composition
The Council shall be composed of HOD past Speakers.
Sec. 2 Duties and Functions
a) The Council shall be the investigatory body of the House of Delegates on legislative issues and make recommendations relative to such.
b) The Council shall offer its services to mediate any issues that may arise from time to time in the House of Delegates.
c) The Council shall interpret, if needed or when the occasion arises, provisions of the House of Delegates.
d) The Council, through the Chairman, shall act as advisor to the incumbent House of Delegates’ Speaker on matters not resolved by the parliamentarian and the Speaker.
Sec. 3 Term of Office
The members of the Council who shall serve in the Board of Governors shall be in accordance to a line of succession, serving for a term of one year and following the fiscal year of the PDA.
Sec. 4 Meetings
a) The Council shall meet during the annual session of the HOD and during the Mid-Year session of the HOD, or as often as the Chairman may determine.
b) Its officers shall meet quarterly or as often as the need arise.
Sec. 1 The Organization of the Constituent Chapter of the Association.
A Constituent Chapter of the Association may be organized in a city, or province of the Republic of the Philippines and government entities such as the AFP and PNP with no fixed geographical designation. The chartership of AFP and PNP dental societies shall be reclassified as a local chapter in those municipalities where constituent chapters have been already chartered before the enactment of this particular provision in the Constitution and By-Laws of the Association such as the chapters of Pasig, Muntinlupa, Las Piñas, San Juan, Mandaluyong, Marikina, Makati, Malabon-Navotas, and Valenzuela. The chartership of AFP and PNP dental societies shall be reclassified as a local chapter.
Sec. 2 Name of the Constituent Chapter
The Constituent Chapter shall bear the name of the City or Province of its jurisdiction.
Sec. 3 Powers and Duties of the Constituent Chapter.
a) Constituent Chapters shall have the power to provide for their own financial support.
b) They shall have the power to adopt and promulgate their own Constitution and BY-LAWS provided that it does not, in any of its parts, contravene provisions of the Constitution and By-Laws of the Philippine Dental Association.
c) The Chapter shall have the power to elect or appoint their official delegates to the House of Delegates.
d) It shall be the duty of the chapter to collect membership fees and/or dues from among its members for the Philippine Dental Association pursuant to the Provisions of Art. XII, Sec. 5 of this By-Laws.
e) It shall be the duty of the chapter to report to the PDA of its record of activities.
f) It shall be the duty of the chapter to promote the objectives of the Association in its area of jurisdiction.
h) It shall hold Professional Continuing Education Program, scientific seminars, symposia, table clinics, etc., as often as possible during each PDA Calendar Year which begins on January 1st of each year and ends on the 31st of December of the following year.
i) The chapter shall seek to full advantage the services of its District Coordinator to promote its plans and objectives.
j) The chapter shall meet regularly and elect their officers in accordance to their By-Laws. Failure to report results thereof or to submit in writing the record of its activities to the office of the Executive Director shall be ground for suspension of its Charter after due process.
k) The chapter shall have a minimum of twenty members in good standing.
Sec. 4 The Charter Certificate of Chapter Constituency; and the Charter Certificate of Affiliation
a) The House of Delegates in session or the Board of Trustees in its ad interim capacity, shall grant a Charter Certificate of Chapter Constituency to any city, and/or provincial organization of dentists with at least 20 members whose officers and members are registered members of the Philippine Dental Association.
b) The Board of Trustees may extend a Charter Certificate of Affiliation to a dental specialty organization, respective professional organization, dental organizations of various dental services of the government, and such other socio-civic organization of dentists seeking affiliation with the Association, if by granting such affiliation shall achieve for the Association on one hand and the organization seeking affiliation on the other better rapport and cooperation for the good of dentistry in the country. Provided, that only one recognized organization per field.
Sec. 5 A Constituent Chapter or accredited affiliate organization’s charter maybe suspended or revoked if the organization has failed to muster the required membership by the first quarter of the fiscal year. The charter will be reinstated in the following fiscal year if the required number of members is attained. Sanction maybe meted for its failure to comply with its duties to the PDA or for any violations of the provisions of the PDA Constitution & By-Laws after a thorough fact finding by the investigative body.
Sec. 1 Composition
The Council shall be composed of the PDA incumbent and past presidents.
Sec. 2 Duties and Functions
a) The Council shall be the consultative body of the Association on matters involving the Code of Ethics and on other matters relative to the interests of the PDA and make recommendations to the Board of Trustees for appropriate actions.
b) The Council, through the Chairman, shall act as advisor to the incumbent President of the Association.
Sec. 3 Officers
There shall be a Board of Governors, drawn from the Council of PDA Presidents who shall administer or manage the affairs of the Council, composed of five (5) members, as follows:
a) Chairman – who is the most senior among the chronological order (list) of PDA Past Presidents;
b) Vice Chairman – who is the next senior among the PDA Past Presidents;
c) Secretary – the next in line of seniority;
d) Treasurer – the next in line of seniority; and
e) Auditor – the next in line of seniority
Sec. 4 Term of Office
The members of the Council who shall serve in the Board of Governors shall be in accordance to a line of succession, serving for a term of one year and following the fiscal year of the PDA.
Sec. 5 Meetings
a) The Council shall meet quarterly, one during the annual convention and another during the Mid-year session of the PDA, or as often as the Chairman may determine.
b) The Board of Governors shall meet quarterly or as often as the need arises.
Sec. 1 The elective officers of the Association and the House of Delegates
a) The elective officers of the Association are the President, President-Elect, Executive Vice President, Vice President for Northern Luzon, Vice President for Southern Luzon, Vice President for Visayas, Vice President for Mindanao, the Eleven (11) members of the Board of Trustees, Treasurer and Auditor. Election of 11 Trustees is by area comprising seven Trustees for Luzon and two Trustees each for Visayas and Mindanao.
b) The elective officers of the House of Delegates are the Speaker, Speaker Protempore, Floor Leader, and the Peace Officer.
c) The elective officers of the Association are elected by the General Assembly called for the purpose during the annual convention.
d) The Vice Presidents for Northern Luzon, Southern Luzon, for Visayas and for Mindanao and the eleven trustees shall be nominated and elected by members of the Association from their particular regions, according to the qualifying provisions of the Constitution and By-Laws as specified in Art. XVII Sec. 1A.
Sec. 2 Eligibility
Only an active member in good standing for at least three (3) consecutive years prior to the election shall be eligible for election to any office and such other qualifications for candidacy as maybe provided for within this Constitution and By-Laws .
Sec. 3 Nomination and Elections
a) Elections for the House of Delegates are done on the floor on the second session of the House of Delegates during the Annual Convention. Affiliate Delegates cannot be nominated for elective position in the House of Delegates. However, they are entitled to one vote.
b) Election of Officers shall be by secret ballot. One member, one vote.
Sec. 4 Election protests may be entertained only under the following conditions:
1) It shall be filed officially with the COMELEC within 10 days from election’s
2) It shall be under oath.
3) A filing fee of ten thousand pesos (P10,000.00) in cash and non refundable shall be paid to the PDA Treasurer to defray the initial cost of the protest and thereafter petitioner shall be billed not more than P50,000 of the bond. Protester/Complainant will deposit a consumable bond of P50,000 to defray for the expenses that shall be incurred in connection with the said protest. Unused bond shall be refunded to the complainant within one week.
Sec. 5 Term of Office
The elective officers shall serve for a term of one (1) year, and/or until their successor shall have been elected and qualified.
Sec. 6 Installation of Officers
The incoming President of the Association and the newly elected national officers of the association shall be inducted into office during the annual convention.
Sec. 7 Vacancy
In the event the office of the President shall become vacant due to resignation, physical disability or other causes, the Executive Vice President shall succeed into the office of the President, and only for the unexpired portion of the latter’s term. After the Executive Vice President, the line of succession shall be the:
a) Executive Vice-President
b) VP North
c) VP South
d) VP Visayas
e) VP Mindanao
f) Trustees with the highest number of votes
Sec. 8 Duties of the Officers
a) The President shall 1) address the opening session of the House of Delegates, 2) deliver an address at the inaugural meeting of the annual session next following his election as President-Elect, 3) sit as ex-officio member of the House of Delegates, 4) preside at all the meetings of the association and the Board of Trustees, 5) act as official representative of the Association in its contacts with the governmental agencies, civic, health, business, and other professional organizations for the purpose of advancing the policies and objectives of the Association, 6) to call special meeting of the House of Delegates and/or the Board of Trustees as provided for in Sec. 4, Art. VI of the Constitution; 7) to recommend to the Board of Trustees the appointments of Chairman and members of the COMELEC and their subsequent submission to the House of Delegates for confirmation; 8) to appoint Chairmen to the various standing committees of the Association; 9) to present his PDA Annual Report before the House of Delegates in session; 10) automatically assumes the Chairmanship and CEO of the Board of Trustees; and 11) to perform such other duties as may be provided for in the Constitution and By-Laws.
b) The President-Elect shall 1) succeed the incumbent president during the next fiscal year, 2) sit as member of the Board of Trustees, 3) assist the President when requested, 4) assume the position as General Chairman of the PDA Annual Convention, and 5) prepare and present to the Board and the House of Delegates the budget for the next fiscal year.
c) The Executive Vice President 1) succeeds the President when the latter’s position becomes vacant; and 2) presides over the meetings of the Board of Trustees when the President is absent; and 3) is an ex-officio member of the House of Delegates.
d) The Vice Presidents for Northern Luzon, Southern Luzon, for Visayas, and for Mindanao. The Area Vice Presidents: 1) assist the President of the Association in his respective region by encouraging active support of the PDA programs; 2) organize at least once a year regional meetings, seminars, conferences; 3) represent the President and the Association in his region in any local health and/or socio-civic undertakings; 4) represent the Chapters of his area in the meeting of the Board of Trustees; 5) serve as member of the Board of Trustees.
e) The Treasurer shall: 1) serve as the custodian of all monies, securities, and funds of the Association; 2) disburse funds of the Association according to the direction and disposition of the Board of Trustees; 3) deposit in a reputable bank and disburse the money of the Association as directed by the Board of Trustees; 4) sign the checks of the Association, together with the President to pay its obligations; 5) submit monthly financial reports to the members of the Board of Trustees, or any time when so requested; 6) submit the annual financial report of the PDA to the House of Delegates; 7) act as custodian of all properties of the Association; 8) to exercise voting power on financial matters during Board Meetings; 9) to be responsible to the membership on the custody and/or disbursements of funds of the Association. He shall post a bond in such amount as may be determined by the board.
f) The Auditor shall perform such duties necessary and expedient in auditing financial management and transactions such as, money, properties, securities, deeds and other assets of the Association. The Auditor shall perform the pre-auditing procedures, or pre-audit of disbursements of the Association. The Auditor shall submit an Auditor’s Report to the Board of Trustees every Board meeting.
g) Each Board of Trustees shall chair at least one Standing Committee
Sec. 1 Composition
There shall be a constitutional body called the Commission on Elections (COMELEC) autonomous in nature composed of three (3) members approved by the Board of Trustees and confirmed by the House of Delegates.
Sec. 2 Qualifications of the Members of the Comelec
a) Must be of good moral character
b) Must be at least forty (40) years old
c) Must have ten (10) years of continuous membership with the Association immediately prior to his/her appointment
d) Must be an active PDA member.
Sec. 3 Term of Office
a) The members of the Commission shall serve for three (3) years, except the first appointee, who shall be appointed as follows:
i. Chairman, to serve for one (1) year
ii. One member for two (2) years, and
iii. The third member for three (3) years
b) The president shall appoint the 3rd member before February during his term or any vacancy in the Comelec within 30 days and upon approval of the Board and confirmation of the House of Delegates
The term of the COMELEC’s 3rd member will end December 31st after serving as Chairman. In case of protest, the COMELEC’s term is automatically extended to an additional forty-five days provided that any protest should be resolved within the same period.
Sec. 4 Duties
The Commission on Elections of the PDA, hygienists and technologists shall regulate and conduct the election of the officers of the Association, receive election protests, investigate, conduct hearings and make a final decision, settle matters of election protests and whose decision shall be final.
Sec. 1 The appointive officers of the Association shall be the Executive Director, the Editors, the Public Relations Officer, the Protocol Officer, the Regional Coordinators and the members of the COMELEC.
Sec. 2 Appointments made by the President enumerated in the preceding section are subject to the approval of the Board of Trustees.
Sec. 3 The duties of the appointive officers of the Association:
a) The Executive Director (a) Qualifications of the Executive Director: 1) he/she must be a baccalaureate degree holder; 2) he/she must have a managerial skill, In addition to the rights and duties ordinarily vested on the Secretary of a Corporation, and on the office of the Executive Director by provisions of this Constitution and By-laws, the Executive Director shall: 1) be the Secretary of the Board of Trustees; 2) keep the records of all minutes of the meetings of the Board of Trustees, and copies of the proceedings of the House of Delegates; 3) furnish the members of the Board copies of the minutes of its meetings; 4) keep a Registry or Book showing the names and addresses of the Chapter/Affiliate Organizations; their members and officers; and a roll of all the members of the Association; 5) keep his book and records open for examination at any reasonable time by the Board of Trustees or the duly authorized member thereof; or to persons expressly authorized by permission of the Board; 6) act as custodian of all records of the Association; 7) coordinate all the activities of all committees regarding their special assignments and systematize the correct preparation of reports, and 8) To submit to the House of Delegates not later than thirty days after the Board of Trustees acted for and in behalf of the House of Delegates in its ad interim capacity; perform such other duties as may be directed by the Board of Trustees.
b) The Regional Coordinators 1) act as representatives of the Association in promoting and maintaining good rapport between chapters, and chapters of his district with the Association; 2) furnish the Association information concerning the organization status of the chapters; 3) encourage active support for PDA Programs; 4) assist the Vice President in coordinating the Association’s programs of activities requiring implementation in the field; to advise the Vice President on the need of organizing new constituent chapters in his District.
c) The Editors: The Editors of their respective PDA publications shall organize their respective staff and shall furnish the Board the annual report of business operations; and perform such other duties as may be prescribed by the Board of Trustees (Note: There are at least three PDA publications the PDA Journal, the PDA Bulletin and an annual special edition of the convention program including a periodic newsletter of day to day convention activities.
d) The Public Relations Officer shall take charge of all public information and promotional activities of the Association through exposure in the Tri-Media which the Association may deem proper for the effective implementation of its aims and programs.
e) The Protocol Officer shall take charge of protocol and proper courtesy arrangements in all functions and activities of the Association, based on the PDA standing rules and guidelines.
Sec. 1 The Standing Committees shall be:
a. Committee on Membership
b. Committee on Finance
c. Committee on Continuing Professional Education
d. Committee on Constitution, By-Laws and Legislation
e. Committee on Public Health
The Special Committees under each Standing Committees shall be:
a) Committee on Membership
a1) PDA ID
a2) Welfare and Trust Fund
A2i) Living Dentists Benefit
A2ii) Calamity Fund
a7) Information (Publication & Website)
a8) Dental Laboratories
b) Committee on Finance
b1) International Trade Relations
b2) Ways and Means
b3) Grants and Donations
b4) Building Trust Fund
c) Committee on Continuing Professional Education
c2) Speakers Bureau
c3) Committee on Dental Education (dental colleges)
c4) Dental Tourism
d) Committee on Constitution, By-Laws and Legislation
d1) Legal Affairs
d2) Illegal Practice
d3) Ethics, Complaints and Grievance
e) Committee on Public Health
e1) Community Outreach (Cleft Lip, Elsie Gaches, Adopt-a-School/Brgy.
e2) Indigency Clinic
e3) Oral Health Promotion and Research
Sec. 2 Duties of the Standing Committees
I) Committee on Membership
1) To impose upon new dentists to be members of the local chapters and the PDA immediately after they are sworn into the profession.
2) To impose upon non dentists as described in Article XII, Section 1. to be members of their respective professional organization and to affiliate themselves with the PDA.
3) To devise ways and means of maintaining the interest of the members and prospective members through fellowship projects and goodwill promotions or any manner that will serve to benefit its members.
II) Committee on Finance
1) Preparation of Budget
2) Appropriation of accounts
3) Audit of PDA Books of Accounts
III) Committee on Continuing Professional Education
1) To design and prepare programs for national, area, regional, chapter/affiliate society scientific meetings and symposia.
2) To organize the composition of the Speakers’ Bureau and establish guidelines and criteria in the selection of its pool of Speakers.
3) To collaborate with the PRC in implementing the continuing professional education among practicing dentists, dental hygienists and dental technologists in consonance with the guidelines of the Continuing Professions Program (CPE) Council of the Professional Regulation Commission (As amended on April 30, 2008)
IV) Committee on Constitution and By-Laws and Legislation
1) To recommend necessary amendments to the Constitution and By-Laws to the House of Delegates to keep it attuned to the needs of the time.
2) To act as Reference Committee for proposed amendments to the Constitution and By-Laws in the House of Delegates or the Board of Trustees in its ad interim capacity
3) To initiate, recommend and to lead advocacy for legislations beneficial to the dental, dental hygiene and dental technology professions more importantly for the nation’s oral health and welfare.
4) To keep the members of the dental, dental hygiene and dental technology professions informed of such bills as may be proposed or which are currently under consideration by Congress which affected the oral health of the public, the dentists, and the practice of dentistry.
5) To compile and collect all laws, ordinances, court decisions and legal opinions affecting or related to dentists and practice of dentistry, dental hygiene and dental technology and to publish the same for the information of dentists.
6) To lobby and make representations in activities of Congress such as hearings and consultations for legislations oral health and dental, dental hygiene and dental technology professions interest.
V) Committee on Dental Public Health
1) Preparation of materials for Publication on Public Health Education and dental care such as pamphlets, films, film slides, postcards and exhibits, for the use of teachers and health education workers and for exhibition and distribution to the general public especially during the National Dental Health Week Celebration, Outreach Project, Barangay Health Seminars.
2) To develop outreach projects regarding dental health which may be used by constituent chapters.
Sec. 3 Duties of the Special Committees under each Standing Committees:
Welfare and Trust Fund (Living Dentists Benefit, Calamity Fund, Mortuary)
1) To prepare guidelines and plan to study ways and means to assist members of the PDA who may be victims of accidents, of death caused by natural calamities.
2) To keep a continuing study of improving the capacity of the Association to extend aid or benefits to its members.
Committee on Dental Insurance
1) To acquire a Comprehensive Medical Healthcare Insurance or HMO Provider for PDA members who wishes to have a Medical Healthcare Insurance that has a complete package of health benefits with a high quality of service that could provide the hospital and medical needs affordable and available to every members of PDA, their clinic staff and their dependents.
2) To evaluate qualifications of the Healthcare Providers and to conduct and document a fair, acceptable and transparent bidding process.
3) To handle the affairs, transactions, facilitate details and coordination with the Healthcare Provider and the enrolled members whose enrollment are entirely independent from the membership fees paid to the Association.
4) To coordinate with the Chapter and Affiliate Presidents of the PDA to serve as the collection and remitting agent in facilitating enrollment of their members.
Committee on Sports
1) To promote and maintain good physical and mental health of the members of the PDA.
2) To foster camaraderie and friendship as well as the spirit of sportsmanship with the different members of the chapters and affiliates
3) To establish unity and bonding of each member by encouraging them to participate in all sports activities.
4) To create a national tournament that will involve every PDA member throughout the country.
Committee on Socials
1) To prepare a general plan of social events, set guidelines and make tentative schedule of particular social affairs not otherwise provided for in the By-Laws.
2) To coordinate with all concerned, determine and recommend the time, date, place of the affair, guest list and other matters regarding its activities.
Committee on Awards
1) To identify and establish criteria of different end-of-the-year awards of the Association in:
Regional Level – Most Outstanding Chapter/Chapter President
2) To establish rules and regulations in the evaluation and verification of awardees.
3) To institutionalize specifications of the awards. (As amended on April 30, 2008)
Committee on Information (Publication and Website)
1) To draw guidelines and standards to encourage and assist the constituent chapters in publishing Newsletter for their members.
2) To publish information materials designed to orient new and prospective members other campaign aids for the Committee on Membership.
3) To publish materials to be used as guidelines for organization, administration and operation of the constituent chapters.
4) To publish the necessary reference materials, studies and reports in collaboration with the Board of Trustees, House of Delegates, and other committees of the Association as the occasion may arises.
5) To cause the printing of the Association’s forms, publication, certificates and other printing needs
6) To publish educational and informative materials to promote oral health in coordination with the Committee on Dental Public Health
7) To develop the Association’s capability to generate printed materials, like posters, video films, etc. for the continuing education program, health education and Public Health Committee activities.
8) To publish rules and laws and guide the members on the new developments.
Committee on Dental Laboratories
1) To establish a strong and harmonious relationship among the dentists, dental technologists and dental laboratory proprietors.
2) To enhance further dissemination of information to dental laboratories as well as dental technologists about the new Dental Law better known as RA 9484 wherein they would be integrated with the Philippine Dental Association.
3) To conduct meetings, symposia and seminars to further enlighten the dental technologists with rules and regulation as stipulated under the newly passed Dental Law.
4) To organize series of scientific seminars or conventions, if possible to enhance their technical knowledge to develop their art and craftsmanship. Also, to arrange solution to their business and technical problems and to set high standard of integrity, honor and courtesy among their relation with each other and with the dental profession.
5) To encourage all dental laboratories in a national scale in complying with the newly amended Presidential Decree No. 1542 which is the law providing for the registration and licensing of all dental laboratories operating in the Philippines.
6) To coordinate with the PDA chapter presidents nationwide to conduct seminars with dental laboratory owners and their dental technologists and to require chapter presidents to acquire list of dental laboratories operating in their area whether they have license to operate or none.
7) To convene regularly with recognized association of dental laboratories and dental technologists, the Philippine Prosthodontic Society and officers of the PDA to discuss current issues that would help to improve the practice of Prosthodontics in Philippine Dentistry.
Ways and Means, Grants and Donations
1) To generate other fund sources
Building and Trust Funds
1) To formulate strategies and guidelines to generate funds for the permanent buildings of the Association.
2) To recommend and secure measures for the productive safekeeping and sound investments of funds generated.
3) To prepare a program, standards of care, repair for the maintenance and upkeep of the permanent PDA building and its facilities to implement the same.
4) To generate funds for the purchase or construction for the permanent headquarters.
5) To cause the purchase or construction of a permanent headquarters of the Association.
Committee on International Trade Relations
1) To encourage and develop satisfactory relations with the various local and international business organizations representing the dental trade, the dental prosthetic laboratories, and dental equipment manufacturing.
2) To formulate plans to establishing and maintaining the highest attainable level of technical standards as they relate to the dental, dental hygiene and dental technology profession and to submit such plans to the Board of Trustees for action in cooperation with the DOH, DOST, Dental Trade Organization and others.
3) To maintain close liaison with the ADA, Federation Dentaire Internationale, Asia-Pacific Dental Federation, WHO, and other health (corresponding) agencies here and abroad, to include those that deal wih dental hygienists and dental technologists.
4) To encourage participation to international conferences, workshops and seminars organized and initiated by the above mentioned organizations.
5) To arrange an exchange program of print materials, video films and other materials which can contribute to the technical professional growth of the members of the Association.
III) Committee on Continuing Professional Education
1) To serve as the official vehicle of PDA for lecturers
2) To assist constituent chapters in obtaining and selecting speakers for their respective symposia
3) To share the contribution and support of our colleagues who excels in their field of expertise and specialization
4) To update the communication techniques through speaker development seminars.
5) To consolidate and program the assignment of speakers
6) To make available to every chapters and affiliate organization of the PDA a list of speakers for their selection
Committee on Dental Education
1) To coordinate with the PRC, CHED, TESDA and the association of dental colleges in order to maintain high standard of dental education.
2) To coordinate efforts of the dental colleges, the Board of Dentistry, Council on Dental Education, and that of the PDA in maintaining high standard of dental education.
3) To recommend to the dental colleges, CHED and TESDA changes in the dental curricula as well as to promote the adoption system, methods, materials and equipment in the practice of Dentistry, Dental Hygiene and Dental Technology, respectively.
Dental Tourism Committee
1.) Main function is to prepare Filipino dentists for global practice of dentistry by information desimination of global guidelines, policies, standard and responsibilities.
2.) See to it that international standard is maintained in dental care, facilities and skill.
Ex. Infection Control
3.) Promotion of Philippine dentistry in the global market. See to it that Filipino dentists will be a part of international network and conduct their practice under the Code of Ethics.
National Dental Health Month
1.) To arouse dental health consciousness among the people.
2.) To propagate the value of oral health to the people during the traditional month-long celebration.
IV) Committee on Constitution & By Laws and Legislation
1) The Committee shall gather and evaluate evidence on referred cases involving illegal practice of Dentistry in the Philippines and with the aid of Counsel, file cases in court.
2) To conduct continuing study of cases handled for the purpose of improving its mission for the good of the Association.
Committee on Code of Ethics/ Complaints and Grievance
1) To consider proposals for amending the Code of Ethics and to make necessary recommendations.
2) To provide advisory opinions regarding the interpretation of the Code of Ethics.
3) To consider appeals and complaints from members of the Association or the constituent chapters.
4) To implement and enforce equitably the Code of Ethics for dentists upon all active members of the Association and recommend to the House of Delegates or to the Board of Trustees if the House is not in session, suitable sanctions for violating members after due process.
5) To accept, evaluate and verify complaints and grievances from members, individuals and other agencies directed to the association or its constituent
6) To recommend to the Council of Presidents measures to resolve these complaints and grievances
1) Manage the protocol requirements of the PDA functions as per the Book of Protocol.
2) See to it that all rules, regulations and guidelines on protocol adopted and approved by the PDA are followed and implemented.
3) Make sure that all materials needed such as flags, banners, rostrum, gavel and gong, printed materials, logo of the organization and others are brought in by an assigned member. He/she must see to it that they are in proper arrangement.
V) Committee on Public Health
Oral Health Promotion and Research
1) To gather informative materials for disemmination to the public regarding the importance of oral health.
2) To develop outreach programs promoting oral health awareness
3) To conduct capacity building seminars for health education workers.
4) To promote and conduct research on oral health, relevant dental products and clinical procedures.
5) To compile scientific data for study and evaluation.
6) To organize an autonomous Research Ethics Review Board.
7) To maintain operations of the Oral Health Research Center.
8) To perform such other duties which the Board of Trustees may assign from time to time.
Community Outreach /Cleft Lip/Palate; Elsie Gaches, Adopt a School/Barangay
1) To implement projects which will deal on curative, procedures like restoration, oral prophylaxis and other treatments.
2) To work hand in hand with the Committee on Public Health and Committee on Dental Health Education towards the promotion of good oral health.
PDA Indigency Clinic
1) To provide basic dental health services to the unserved and underserved members of the community.
Council on Dental Products
1) Document evaluation and verification
2) Clinical testing and evaluation.
Sec. 1 The Continuing Dental Education Program shall be the primary responsibility of the Association towards the professional development of its members keeping them abreast with universal developments in the science and practice of dentistry.
Sec. 2 The Association shall conduct a program of continuing education at its annual general convention and a staggered annual program of similar nature although much smaller in scale of Continuing Education at regional area levels thru the constituent chapters.
Sec. 3 The Board of Trustees shall take care of the management and arrangement of the continuing education through its committees to coincide with the PDA Annual Convention and the Annual Session of the House of Delegates.
Sec. 4 The executive committee in-charge of the annual program of Continuing Education shall be the PDA Annual Dental Convention Committee.
Sec. 5 The Philippine Dental Association (PDA) shall be responsible for implementing the Continuing Education Programs according to the guidelines set by the Professional Regulation Commission (PRC)
Sec. 6 All Scientific Programs whether sponsored or funded by the PDA which will earn CPE units for the attendees must be integrated into the CDE Chairman’s overall program .
Sec. 7 The CDE chairman cannot run for any elected position in the PDA during its tenure as chairperson of said committee.
Sec. 8 Candidates running for office in the PDA cannot serve as lecturers during the campaign period until election day.
Sec. 9 The Continuing Education Committee shall strictly enforce the programs duly approved by the PDA Board of Trustees independent of the conditions set by the sponsoring entity.
Sec. 1 The Annual Convention
a) The annual convention shall be held on the second tuesday of May at a place that shall be decided by the President-Elect with the concurrence and approval of the Board of Trustees through the recommendation of the Executive Committee of the annual convention, provided further that the venue shall be selected not less than six months in advance. The annual constituent assembly meeting shall be held on the 2nd Tuesday of May. (as Amended on November 19, 2011)
b) The President-Elect shall be the General Chairman and heads the Executive Committee.
c) It shall be the duty of the Executive Committee to manage, arrange, supervise and coordinate all activities incident to organizing and making success of the Annual Convention.
d) There shall be Dental Trade Exhibits. The Committee on Trade Relations shall give direct supervision and assistance to the Executive Committee over the dental trade exhibits subject however to the Policies and Guidelines that may further be established by the Board of Trustees.
e) The President-Elect, as the Executive Chairman shall be given the authority to appoint the various committees.
f) The President-Elect shall appoint a Convention Treasurer and Auditor but shall submit a properly audited report to the Board of Trustees and PDA Treasurer on the first Board Meeting, income generating consists : registration, sponsorship, trade exhibits, venue, presidents night, fellowship, appreciation, awards night and other reports one month after the Annual Convention.
Sec. 2 Admission to any continuing education program during the annual convention shall be limited to:
a) Active, associate, honorary, and life members of the Association who are in good standing.
b) Active members of good standing of National Association of Dental Technology.
c) Active, good standing members of National Association of Hygienists.
Sec.1 The Association shall provide publications to all members in good standing.
Sec. 2 The Association shall publish a quarterly Journal which shall be called the Journal of the Philippine Dental Association (JPDA) in which shall be published articles of interest and value to as well as reflective of the profession and the science of dentistry in the country and overseas. The Association shall also publish the PDA Bulletin which shall reflect the internal activities of the Association – its constituent chapters and its affiliated organizations.
Sec. 3 Publications of the Association shall be funded from these sources; (a) 12.50% of the annual membership fees (b) sale of advertisement space and (c) donations.
Sec.1 Sources of Funds: Annual Membership Fees
a) Active Members annual fee: The active member’s annual membership fee shall be determined by theBoard of Trustees subject to the confirmation of the House of Delegates. It shall be paid thru the Constituent Chapter of which the dentist is a member preferably; in which instance, three point seventy five percent (3.75%) (as Amended on November 19, 2011) of the membership fee, shall accrue to the Chapter, provided, however, that payments made to the Chapter shall be remitted within the first half of the Fiscal Year.
b) Auxilliary Member’s annual fee: The auxiliary member’s annual membership fee shall be determined by the Board of Trustees subject to the confirmation of the House of Delegates. It shall be paid through the respective professional organization of which the individual is a member preferably in which instances, 10% of the membership fee shall and be remitted within the first half of the fiscal year.
Sec. 2 Convention Fees
a) Annual Convention fees shall be collected from the delegates in the amount fixed by the Executive Committee, and upon approval of the Board of Trustees.
b) Dues may also be collected from registrants attending continuing education programs sponsored by the Association in such time and place other than those held during the annual convention; and those held in regions and/or districts and which amount shall be approved by the Board of Trustees.
Sec. 3 Donations, Grants, Assigns
The Association shall solicit donations, accept grants and/or assigns from any legitimate source, whether in cash or in kind.
Sec. 4 The Association shall generate funds from sale of advertisement spaces in its publications, as well as sale of booth spaces during trade exhibits.
Sec. 5 The Association shall have on its income the interest on accounts placed on savings and time deposits.
Sec. 6 Penalties and/or fines from late membership fees payments shall be:
a) Imposed by the Treasurer of the Association in the amount not exceeding five percent (5%) of the arrearages per annum.
b) A fine of five percent (5%) on the collections due the Association shall be charged on the Chapter for failure to remit within thirty (30) days what is due the Association.
c) The balance of a three-year paid up member’s fee carried into the succeeding fiscal year or years; shall be levied a late payment penalty or fine of ten percent (10%), and shall, if not paid, be added to the arrearages carried into the succeeding fiscal year until such arrearages are fully settled. These fines shall not accrue to the constituent chapter but to the Association.
Sec. 7 Classification of Funds
The funds of the Association shall be classified into GENERAL FUND, and SPECIAL AND FIDUCIARY FUND.
a) The GENERAL FUND shall be derived from the income of the Association from membership fees and dues; sale of advertisement spaces; rentals and/or sale of franchise for trade exhibits; subscriptions to publications of the Association; cash donations to the Association not specified for any particular or special program or project of the Association. The operations fund of the Association shall be taken from the general fund.
b) The SPECIAL AND FIDUCIARY FUND shall be those money or monies placed in trust with the Association in the nature of special funds allocated by provision of this Constitution and By-Laws as in Art. XII Sec. 5; or donation, or grants for particular programs or projects of the Association. Some of these are:
1. The Continuing Education Fund
2. House of Delegates Fund
3. Legal Affairs Fund
4. The Publication Fund
5. The Welfare and Trust Fund
c) The above mentioned SPECIAL FUNDS cover the special projects of the Association. Each of them is under the management of a special committee of a chairman and two members, except the Publications fund which is managed by the respective publication staff of the PDA headed by the Editors of the Journal and Bulletin of the PDA. All these Committees are responsible to the Board of Trustees. The Chairman and members of these Committees are appointed by the Chairman of the Board with the approval of its members with a tenure of three years.
c1. PDA membership computerization fund. It is a fund devoted solely to the computerization of membership office and its projects.
Sec. 8 General Fiscal Provisions
a) All monies, bonds and/or paper securities of the Association shall be deposited in reputable government and/or private banking institution approved by the Board of Trustees.
b) Monies of the Association shall be deposited in accounts specified by provision of the By-Laws of the Constitution, or in accounts approved by the Board except in the money market.
c) Accounts of the Association shall be in the name of the PHILIPPINE DENTAL ASSOCIATION under three signatories: (for purposes of deposit) The President of the Association, the Treasurer and the Executive Vice President. (For checks) The President or Executive Vice President and Treasurer (disbursements).
d) Monies generated during the annual convention should be reverted to the general funds within 30 days after the last day of the convention.
e) The Treasurer may appoint deputies other than the Assistant Treasurer duly appointed by the Board of Trustees, but the Treasurer shall remain the responsible officer for the funds, and who shall be accountable to the Association.
Sec. 9 Disbursements
a) Disbursements shall be supported by receipts;
b) Disbursements above the maximum specified by the Board shall not be made without latter’s approval. (Note: Supported by a Board Resolution)
c) Purchases of materials and/or equipment above a maximum set by the Board shall not be authorized without proper canvass. By canvass is not meant the pertinent papers showing cost of materials obtained from more than one source, but shall include the report of a special committee duly formed to examine the veracity of such papers.
Sec. 10 Such budgetary and/or fiscal controls and/or measures as are deemed necessary shall be passed by the Board as long as they do not negate the general fiscal provisions hereon provided.
Sec. 1 The Chairman, Committee on Code of Ethics may recommend to the Board of Trustees of the Association the suspension and expulsion of any member if after investigation, he is found to have violated the Regulatory Code of Dental Practice in the Philippines, or whose Certificate of Registration has been revoked by the Professional Regulation Commission.
Sec. 2 Any officer of the Association and the House of Delegates may be impeached for cause, upon recommendation of the Committee on Code of Ethics and after having been given a chance to defend himself in accordance with rules and/or procedures of due process.
Sec. 3 Any member of the Association who has been found guilty and has been convicted by any court of law.
Sec. 4 PDA Membership of any member/officer can be suspended on the following grounds:
ii. Non liquidation of financial report of the chapter/affiliate and association within the prescribed period.
iii. Violation of the Code of Ethics of Dental Practice in the Philippines
iv. Conduct unbecoming of any PDA officer and member
v. Violations of any provisions of the PDA Constitution and By laws.
Sec. 1 The provisions of this Constitution and By-Laws or any part thereof may be amended by a two thirds (2/3) vote of the voting delegates present at a session of the House of Delegates provided, however that such documents shall be submitted to a postal referendum or ratification by the members of the Association at a General Assembly.
Voted and adopted this 20th day of March 1998 at the principal office by all incorporators.
(SGD) DR. ROMEO V. KAMANTIGUE
(SGD) DR. LUIS P. ALFILER Executive
(SGD) DR. JESUS C. TUMANENG
(SGD) DR. CELESTINO N. APRIETO
Vice President for Metro Manila
(SGD) DR. CYNTHIA U. DELA CRUZ
Vice President for Luzon
(SGD) DR. CECILIA P. CORDERO
Vice President for Visayas
(SGD) DR. CAMILO V. NABOR
Vice President for Mindanao
BOARD OF TRUSTEES
(SGD) DR. RENE A. PONTI
(SGD) DR. LOLITA T. SUNGLAO
(SGD) DR.ARMYL C. BAÑEZ
(SGD) DR. ASTER C. CAMPANERO
(SGD) DR. MA. MIRASOL G. CABAL
(SGD) DR. JUSTITO C. DACUYCUY
(SGD) DR. ARSENIO C. DONESA
Speaker, House of Delegates
(SGD) DR. DOMINADOR H. SANTOS, JR.
Chairman, Board of Governors
Council of PDA Presidents
Section 1. Primary Duty – The dentist’s , dental hygienist’s, and dental technologist’s primary duty of serving the public is accomplished by giving his/ her professional service to the best of his/her capabilities in accordance with established standards of care and by conducting himself/herself in a manner befitting a professional of high esteem.
Section 2. Emergency Service – A dentist, dental hygienist, and dental technologist when consulted in an emergency by the patient of another, shall attend ONLY to the conditions leading to the emergency. Upon completion of the treatment, he/she shall return the patient to his/her dentist-of-record and inform him/her of the conditions found and treated.
Section 3. Delegation of Service – Dentist shall conduct himself/herself a professional deportment at all times; therefore, he shall not delegate procedure, services, or operations in the mouth which require his/her personal competence as a professional. He/she shall only delegate services to duly licensed dentist, licensed dental hygienist, or licensed dental technologist in his/her employ to perform dental services duly expressed by law. He/she shall at all times be responsible for the actions of his/her employ at the areas of his/her jurisdictions (or areas of assigned practice) during assigned clinic/duty hours.
Section 4. Supervision Of Work – The dentist shall supervise his/her associates and his/her auxiliaries in the performance of their duties and shall at all times assure delivery of quality standards of care.
Section 5. Professional Fees – The dentist shall ascertain fees for his/her professional services taking into consideration the nature of the case, his/her expertise of the case, efforts, skills and materials involved. The dentist must discuss the treatment plan, options, and corresponding fees for the proposed treatment options. He/she shall at all times give credence to his/her work and, therefore, establish his/her professional fees rendering due dignity to the profession.
Section 6. Irreproachable Conduct – The dentist shall conduct himself/herself in a manner completely above suspicion or reproach. The dentist shall not allow his/her name to cover up illegal acts such as misrepresentation of industrial/commercial/private establishments required by law to engage the services of a dentist or for illegal practitioners, quacks, or charlatans; or to provide certification without due basis.
Section 7. Discoveries Of Work – In the interest of public health, the dentist, dental hygienist, and dental technologist must make available their discoveries, inventions, or works which are useful in safeguarding or promoting health, subject to government regulatory laws.
Section 8. Oral Health Care Program – The dentist, dental hygienist, and dental technologist shall participate in programs designed for oral health education and care. They shall participate in volunteer programs for the delivery of oral health services in underserved and underprivileged areas.
Section 9. Leadership – In all efforts to improve the dental health of the public, the dentist, dental hygienist, and dental technologist shall make available to the community their skills, knowledge, and experiences, particularly in the field of specialty.
Section 10. Bioethics – Every dentist participating in research projects involving procedure in the oral cavity to any person/s must conform to international ethical standards taking into considerations the human rights of the subjects and duly informing them of the outcome and risks of the study. Each subject must have a signed informed consent form/s obtained at the onset of the study; and in instances where changes in the research protocol is essential for the completion of the study, another signed informed consent form must be obtained from the subjects. In the event that minors are the subjects of the study, parental consent must be obtained.
Section 11. Records Keeping – Every dentist must obtain baseline medical and dental record for all patients of his/her office. The said record must include, among others, his/her treatment plan, diagnostic records such as radiographs, blood test record/results, consent form. Medical clearance must be filed with the patients dental records and must be in his/her safekeeping for at least ten (10) years.
Section 12. Keeping Professionally Fit – The right of every dentist, dental hygienist, and dental technologist to professional status rests in the degree of knowledge, skills, and efficiency with which he/she serves his/her patients, his/her community, and the nationalities under his/her care.
12.1. Continuing Professional Development – In order to continually enhance his professional competence, every dentist, dental hygienist, or dental technologist shall pursue continuing education programs offered by the Philippine Dental Association, (PDA) Inc. and accredited CPE providers duly accredited by the CPE Council for dentists, dental hygienists, and dental technologists and other CPE programs duly accredited by the Board of Dentistry and the PRC.
12.2 Continuing Professional Education Development Credits (CDEC) – – Every dentist, dental hygienist, or dental technologist shall complete a minimum of sixty (60) Continuing Education/Development Credit units every three (3) years prior to the renewal of his Professional Identification Card, provided that the nature of the CPE programs shall conform to the advance competency program stipulated by the CPE Council.
12.3 Preceptorship – the Board of Dentistry shall directly regulate the establishment and conduct of training delivered independently by an individual or group of dental professionals, having appropriate juridical personalities. The aforementioned training must be conducted in a school duly recognized by the Commission on Higher Education or hospital duly recognized by the Department of Health as a training hospital.
12.4 Specialty Group – Each Specialty Society shall apply to the Board of Dentistry for the accreditation of the Society. Each Specialty Society must evolve its own system of accreditation of its members subject to the approval of the Board and the Commission; provided, that specialty training, accredit training programs under the its area of specialization, assist the Board of Dentistry in monitoring the different specialty programs and preceptorship, establish its council, police its own ranks; and shall at all times safeguard the public against those who do not meet the qualifications prescribed by the system.
12.5 Evidence of Professional Credentials – The dentist’s school diploma, certificate of registration, professional identification card, certificates and of training residency, certificate of proficiency issued by specialty council, the Board of Dentistry and such other documents, or papers required by law shall be displayed in his clinic or reception room. Plaques, Testimonials, Certificates of Appreciation obtained as a result of the dentist’s professional competency maybe displayed separately in the dentist’s private office only. For other venues of practice, a certified true copy shall be obtained from the dental school and Certificate of Registration and Professional Identification Card obtained at PRC and properly posted at the aforementioned areas.
Section 13. Duty To Report – The dentist, dental hygienist, or dental technologist shall report all violations of the “Philippine Dental Act of 2007”, rules and regulations governing the practice of Dentistry, and this Code, as may be committed by a duly licensed dentist, dental hygienist, or dental technologist, or non-Dentist, which comes to their knowledge, to the appropriate chapter or affiliate society, the Board, or the Professional Regulation Commission. Alleged illegal dental practitioners must be treated with due respect in accordance to their primary human rights and must be presumed innocent until proven guilty.
Section 14. Professional Consultation and Referral – The dentist shall seek consultation or make a referral whenever the welfare of the patient requires recourse to those who possess appropriate professional expertise. The consultant shall discuss the details of the case management to the referring dentist and patient. The consultant shall observe and manage post-operative conditions and refer the patient back to the referring dentist after the management of the cause of the referral.
Section 15. Transfer of Patients – The dentist shall properly endorse his or her patient to another dentist with proper release of documents in instances such as transfer of residence or palace of work of either the patient or dentist; closure of the dental clinic; or migration of the dentist to another country, in instances wherein healthy relation between patient and dentist no longer exists, for whatever reason. Certification of Release must contain extent of work rendered and absence, or presence of obligation from the previous dentist-of-record.
15.1 The entire referral process should be properly documented and entered into the records of both dentists.
15.2 The receiving dentist, prior to managing the new case, shall, in the spirit of solidarity and collegiality, inform the previous dentist- of- record of the said intent of transfer.
15.3 In case of transfer patients, receiving dentist must generate his/her own record as baseline information for the treatment.
15.4 In case a DENTIST is unable to continue to address the needs of the patient the dentist shall convey his/her commitment to provide emergency dental care until such time that the patient can transfer to another dentist.
Section 16. Professional Opinion/Testimony– The dentist shall institute corrective treatment in case of faulty management by another dentist without criticism.
16.1 Justifiable Criticism – Every dentist shall report to the appropriate authority or professional societies instances of gross and continual faulty treatment by another dentist.
16.2 Responsible Comments – The dentist shall at all times limit comments within the nature of the referral or consultation. Dentist must refrain from criticizing the skill knowledge and experience of another dentist in the presence of a patient or elsewhere, for lack of accurate knowledge of the conditions or circumstances under which the services were rendered.
16.3 Expert Testimony – The dentist rendering expert testimony in cases of litigations shall limit comments to the case brought forth and avoid undue criticism to defame or discredit the other.
Section 17. Performance of Obligations – The dentist shall perform in good faith and with due diligence all his/her obligations arising from agreements with patients, or other persons and financing institution, or other instrumentalities, so as not to undermine the prestige of the profession.
Section 18. Testimonials – The dentist, the dental hygienist, or dental technologist shall consider the dignity of the dental profession before providing professional opinion or endorsement of professional and/or proprietary products and techniques. A dentist, dental hygienist, or dental technologist or any association of dentists shall not give direct testimonials or endorsement of products for the delivery of dental care.
Section 19. Building a Dental Practice – The dentist, dental hygienist, or dental technologist shall make his/her practice known in a manner befitting a professional.
19.1 FAIR means to Build Professional Practice –The dentist, dental hygienist, or dental technologist shall ONLY use fair means to gain professional advancement, or shall not injure the opportunities of other dental practitioners such as false claims of one’s competency.
19.2 Title of the practice – To maintain the dignity of the profession, a dentist shall only use the term “Clinic” or “Office” in reference to the dental practice. The name of the practice shall conform to the high esteem of the profession avoiding commercialized names, which may be inappropriate to the profession.
19.3 Soliciting Patients – A dentist shall not solicit patients personally or employ his/her patients, agents, or agencies to solicit patients for him/her. He/she shall not accept/offer rebates or receive commissions for referrals; nor engage in any promotional activity which will be degrading the dignity of the profession.
Piracy of patients shall be avoided at all times. Offering “Promotional Rates” shall not be allowed in the practice of the dental profession.
Section 20. Authorized Advertising – The best and honorable means by which a dentist, dental hygienist, or dental technologist may make known and advance his/her reputation for skills and competence in the practice of dentistry is through his professional services to his/her patients and to the public.
20.1 Signages – The signage quality and quantity shall to be as decent and dignified as possible and shall conform with the regulations of the local government code. It shall state the nature of the dental practice and may include the name of the dentist and clinic hours. The term “X-ray”, “Gas”, “Air-abrasive”, “dental laboratory”, “air-conditioned”, or any technical terms; and misleading claims must not appear in the card, stationeries, office doors, and signboards of the dentist. When placing his/her name upon the directory board of an office building, the dentist must comply with the use of only the size of lettering regularly used by the tenants in said building.
20.2 Use of professional titles and degrees – The dentist shall use only the usual titles and academic degrees such as “Doctor”, “Dentist”, “DDS”, “DMD”, “DDM”, in connection with his/her name or signature.
20.3 Professional Stationery – A dentist, dental hygienist, or dental technologist shall identify himself/herself as dental practitioner only in the following manner.
20.3.1 Cards, Letterheads and Announcements – A dentist, dental hygienist, or dental technologist may properly utilize professional cards, recall notices to patients of record and letterheads when the style and text are consistent with the dignity of the profession.
20.3.2 Professional Cards – They must be of traditional size and type and shall not include more than the dentist’s name, academic degree, address, telephone number and office hours. If he/she confines himself/herself to the practice of a specialty, he/she may include the following; “practice limited to . . . “ announcing the specialty and nothing more.
20.3.3 Telephone and other Directories – The dentist, dental hygienist, or dental technologist may authorize the listing of his/her name in a telephone or other directory.
20.3.4 Electronically Generated Communications – The simple and dignified means of professional announcement shall apply to all electronically generated communications; Provided, it is in consonance with the provisions of the Code of Ethics.
Section 21. Announcement – The dentist shall use newspaper announcement only when opening a new clinic, or when changing location, or limiting the character of his/her practice; provided, that the newspaper announcement shall not be larger than 2 column by 2 column inches. Announcements in print, website, e-cards, and other electronic form of communication shall be posted within thirty (30) days from the date of opening. Announcement cards may be sent when there is a change in location, or an alteration in the character of practice, but to other dentists, members of the health profession, and patients-of-record.
Section 22. Membership and Financial Support – The dentist, dental hygienist, and dental technologist shall be active members of the Philippine Dental Association, (PDA) Inc., the integrated national organization of dentists, dental hygienists, and dental technologists duly recognized by the Board of Dentistry and accredited by the Professional Regulation Commission and of the bona fide Dental Chapter of the association within area of his/her practice. His/her membership requires financial support in reasonable amount fixed by the association and chapter.
Section 23. Judicial Committee – Violation of this Code and the interpretation or construction of any provision thereof may be resolved in the first instance by the Judicial Committee of the Chapter or Affiliate Society motu proprio, or at the relation of any person under oath. The PDA President shall indorse to or file with the Board of Dentistry the committee’s finding for administrative action.
Section 24. Sanctions – The Board, even without endorsement or complaint filed by the PDA, Inc., shall conduct the administrative investigation pursuant to PRC Res. No. 06-342, Series of 2006 upon complaint of a person, natural or juridical, or motu proprio, and shall accordingly, impose the disciplinary action of the nullification or suspension of the certificate of registration and professional identification card of the registered and licensed dentist, dental hygienist or dental technologist, or the cancellation of a temporary/special permit issued to a foreign dentist, should the respondent be found guilty under Sec. 22, Art. III of R.A. No. 9484 for violation of this Code, or Sec. 22 (a): unprofessional and unethical conduct, after due process.
Section 25. Separability Clause. – If any section or provision of this Code shall be declared, unconstitutional or invalid, such declaration shall not affect any other section or provision hereof.
Section 26. Repealing Clause. – Board Resolution No. 60, Series of 1983 is hereby repealed. All other codes, issuances, rules, regulations, or orders on the behavior of registered and licensed dentists, registered and licensed dental technologists, dental assistants or technicians in conflict with any section or provision of this Code shall be modified or repealed accordingly.
Section. 27. Effectivity. – This Board Resolution or Code shall take effect after fifteen (15) days following the full and complete publication thereof in the Official Gazette, or any newspaper of general circulation in the Philippines.
The Philippine Dental Association
Dedicated to help and serve our nation
We stand for charity and we’re one in unity
Our goal the progress of our country
Onward go with might and spirit
With God’s help we will succeed
So let us strive with all our might
To ease the pain of mankind
We serve the rich and the poor
All the hardship we endure
Be it night or day we have no complaint
Our oath we do uphold
Our lives are dedicated
To heal and alleviate
So hand in hand our goal and aim
Is PDA’s Glory and Fame
The Philippine Dental Association
Dedicated to help and serve our nation
We stand for charity and we’re one in unity
Our goal the progress of our country
Onward go with might and spirit
With God’s help we will succeed
So let us strive with all our might
Music and Lyrics By:
Dr. Rodolfo E. Reyes, Sr.
Past President, Nueva Ecija Dental Chapter
The Philippine Dental Association is a non-stock, non-profit association founded in 1908. The PDA has its own Constitution & By-Laws and is duly registered with the Securities & Exchange Commission. Its operation is guided by RA 9484 (The New Dental Act signed by Her Excellency, President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo last June 2, 2007) and the Regulatory Code of Dental Practice.
The PDA has grown through the years. Currently, it has an active membership of more than 15,000 from its 95 chapters nationwide. The PDA has three branches of government; the Executive PDA Board; the Legislative (House of Delegates) and the Judicial (Council of Past Presidents)
1.) To maintain the standards of the dental profession through progressive dental education;
2.) To encourage scientific researches and programs;
3.) To safeguard dental health supporting sound dental health legislation and public Health programs, and
4.) To foster mutual respect and fellowship among dentists and with individuals of Allied professions.
These observations stem from the author’s almost 50 years of involvement with PDA affairs. It is by no means conclusive, and additional information or rectifications will be most welcome. What is important is for PDA and its Chapters/ Affiliates to agree to adopt One Official Logo for the sake of uniformity.Through the years, I have observed the inconsistencies in the use of our “PDA Logo”. These must have been due to either lack of appreciation of its real meaning and symbolism, or just plain misinformation of what it stands for. This short article will attempt to put our logo in the right perspective with a nationalistic fervor. It is but logical to trace its evolution from the origin of the “Caduceus” and the ancient people, places and events, not to mention the myths involved.Caduceus is a Latin term, which comes from the Greek word, “Karikein” meaning “Karyx” or Herald. Hence, “Herald’s Badge of Office”. In fact, during classical time.
The Staff : Gold
The Snake (Dahong Palay): Green
Tagalog Letter (Da): Lavender (The color of Dentistry) Darker Hue
Sampaguita Leaves : Green
Sampaguita Flowers (our national flower) : White
Philippine Dental Association : Gold
Stars : Gold (representing Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao)
Circle Border : (White)
1908 : White
Background : Light Lavender
This badge is indicative of a sacred person not to be molested A magical potency for protection used as a “King’s Scepter” or stick on sleeves. The original form of a “Caduceus” was a branch with two twigs growing at the top like a Dowser’s rod. These twigs were then pulled down and entwined around the main branch. The orientals had its own interpretation whereas the twigs became snakes … somewhat like the staff carried by Aesculapius (Gr. Asklepias). Aesculapius was the Originator of Medicine” and honored as a hero of Athens and eventually as a god. Temples known as Aesculapias were erected in many parts of Greece particularly in high mountains Aesculapias that Hippocrates; the reorganized “Father of Medicine” was born.
As mentioned above, Aesculapius was a Greek “ God of Medicine” who lived about the 12th or 13th B.C. His father is Apollo, the “Sun God” god of healing, and his mother is the nymph Cronis. The ancient people connected the sun to the curing of disease. The great Greek poet Homer mentioned Aesculapius in his “lliad” as a skillful physician who could restore life to the dead. Pluto, the guardian of the dead, for fear of losing his dominion and his job complained to the Great Goz Zeus. Zeus, afraid too, that Aesculapius might render all men immortal, slew him with a thunderbolt. Aesculapius’ symbols was serpent entwined around a staff. Another myth related to the origin of the “Caduceus” involved the life of Hermes, known to the Romans as Mercury, the messenger of the Gods. He owned a lyre, which attracted Apollo, the god of manly youth and beauty, poetry, oracles, healing and music. Apollo wanted to possess the lyre that he exchanged his magic wand for this. This magic wand was known to have influence over all things … bestowing wealth and all things good. This was the first “Caduceus” and was made of an olive branch with garlands. One day, Hermes or Mercury came upon two serpents fighting each other. He separated them using this magic wand. Today, these two serpents may be seen in medical and dental insignias or logos entwined around a staff. They represent goodness, wisdom and power to heal. The wings at the top represent Mercury’s speed as messenger of the Gods.
The PDA Logo, has undergone an evolutionary process. Before World War II, the “Caduceus” with its winged staff and intertwined serpents was frequently used in the United States of America as a medical emblem. This, unfortunately, was without medical relevance since it represented then the magic wand of the messenger of the Gods … Hermes or Mercury, as the patron of traders. Dentistry adopted this emblem and put the letter “D”:The earliest copy of the Journal of the PDA in my possession was May 1952. The logo appeared as a staff with a serpent entwined and two springs with leaves at the bottom of the staff. This was enclosed by an equilateral triangle, which according to the officials of the Association then, represents Education as the base of the triangle and the two sides, Organization and Licensure. These were then enclosed by a circle with the Philippine Dental Association. At the bottom of said circle is the word, Founded in 1908 (Fig. 1)
Since our Journal was first published in 1948, and considering that my oldest copy was 4 years old, it is possible that the same logo must have appeared earlier. Last appearance was in the August 1961 issue of the PDA Journal. A new logo appeared in the September 1961 issue of the Journal of the Philippine Dental Association. A staff with a serpent entwined with crossed Sampaguita sprigs at the bottom of the number of 4 sets of leaves on each side to make a total of 16 representing half of the human permanent dentition, with five each Sampaguita flowers representing half of the human temporary dentition. The permanent and temporary dentition have a total of 32 and 20 teeth, respectively. For the first time, the “Tagalog”letter”Da” appeared between the top of the staff and the Sampaguita sprigs. It was also claimed that this was borrowed from the ancient Pre-Hispanic “Alibata or Baybayin”…. the basis of our modern “ABAKADA”. This “Da” is the equivalent of letter “D” that stands for Dentistry. The “Alibata “ is till extant and in use among the Mangyans of Mindoro and other ethnic groups in certain parts of the Philippines. The triangle disappeared, but the encircled words, Philippine Dental Association remained. This time, the 1908 was below the encircled sprigs and just below that, three stars representing Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao. The serpent, by the way, represents a “Dahong Palay”, poisonous Philippine snake. (Fig. 2). This logo was adopted from the insignia of the Armed Forces Dental Service with minor modification. This said insignia was approved by the Heraldry Committee, Office of the President , Republic of the Philippines in 1956 issue. There were no issues of the JPDA after the July – August – September 1986. The publication was resumed June – July- August 1988. Again, there was different configuration of the logo. Noticeably, the sprigs were pointed and the number of leaves and flowers were not distinct (Fig. 3). The DDM Journal was the official organ of the PDA from 1990 to March 1991 (3 issues).
Another innovation of the logo of the Philippine Dental Association was observed in the June – July – August 1989 issue of the JPDA (Fig. 4). It is practically the same as the one described in the preceding paragraph except the Sampaguita sprigs. They are located at the side of the staff, serpent and letter “ Da” and 1908 separating them at the bottom. There are now 8 sets of leaves at each side or a total of 32 and 7 each of Sampaguita flowers or a total of 14. Apparently, these were suppose to represent the number of teeth of the human permanent and temporary dentitions as the previously described logo. But why 14 flowers? It should be 20 for temporary dentition – 10 for each side.
As mentioned at the outset, there had been variations in the representations of our logo as observed by the writer.These were not only in the Journals, but also in the banners, publications and stationeries of the Association, its chapters and affiliates. Even the color schemes of these representations are confusing and appear in various hues. If I remember correctly, the local color and symbolism as approved by the Heraldry Committee for our Armed Forces Dental Service in 1956 when the AFP Dental Service was separated from the Medical Service as an autonomous unit and adopted by the PDA with minor modifications was endowed with nationalistic fervor.
The PDA Logo and the Caduceus
(Evolution and Symbolism)
Sofronio P. San Juan, D.D.M., M.D.Sc
Dental practice in the Philippines today is fast becoming a powerful force in helping shape the future of the country under the New Society. The dedicated efforts and personal sacrifices of Filipino practitioners who work hard to serve the public and keepup the dignity of the dental profession are guarantees of a bright future for our expanding missions of people who need oral health care. Early Filipinos, even before the advent of the Spaniards had been practicing some crude form of dentistry. Barbers doubled up as dental practitioners. They used queer methods of treating toothaches. They used their fingers and sometimes nail-pliers for extracting teeth.
Real dental practice in the country began more than a hundred years ago. It started in the district of Quiapo, City of Manila, in the time of Capital Jose Arevalo, popularly known as Capitan Cheng- Cheng. He was gradually regarded as the first Filipino dentist. An expert in carving tooth and plate on a single ivory piece, Capitan Chengcheng established his dental office in the same place. He had his wife for his assistant. She was also skilled in gold craftsmanship.About the year 1858, a French dentist from Hong Kong, known as Monsieur M. Fertri, came to Manila and set up a dental office in Quiapo. He was a very able dentist but not a good prosthetist. On this account he had to look for an assistant who could make artificial teeth. He found Capitan Chengcheng who no sooner became his partner in the profession. The joint practice of these two unassuming dentists marked the dentistry in the country.
During the Spanish regime, practice of dentistry was popularly known as the profession of the sacamuelas or tooth pullers. Since it was not a legally established profession, any persons who was capable of extracting teeth, could practice as a sacamuela without rendering himself culpable of illegal practice of dentistry. Later a special course was established in the University of Santo Tomas for cirujanos ministrantes which was eventually changed to cirujano dentistas. This curriculum, although a very crude one, marked a milestone of great significance in the development of dentistry as a profession.When the Americans occupied the Islands, the Islands, the Military Governor of the Philippines, Major General Elwell Otis, authorized the then Provost Marshall General to determine the fitness of those who were already practicing dentistry. Accordingly, examinations were given and licenses subsequently issued. The requirement marked the beginning of the trend toward state supervision of the dental practice of the country.Three years after, with the change from a military to a civil government, the Islands were placed under a governing body known as the Philippine Commission. It was this body, which, in 1903, passed the famous Act No. 593, considered to be the second step towards the maturation of dentistry in the Philippines into a profession. This Act provided for the organization of the Board of Dental Examiners and vested with powers substantially similar to those the present Board enjoys. The members of this Board were: Dr. Robert T. Olliver, chairman; Dr. Wallace G. Skidmore, secretary-treasurer; and Dr. Antonio Vergel de Dios, member.
The effects of American education began to be felt and were highlighted by the arrival of Filipino dentists who earned their degrees from American dental schools. Some of these Filipino dentists were Drs. Gregorio R. Mateo, Francisco Ponce, Placido Flores and Joaquin A. Lada. While Filipino dentists increased, the dental needs and problems of the people also increased. To solve this, they bonded themselves together into an organization called the Sociedad dental de Filipinas with Don Bonifacio Areavalo as president, Gregorio R. Mateo as vice-president, F. Calleja and Juan Villanueva as secretary and treasurer respectively. This organization was instrumental towards the establishment of dental schools and initiation of reforms for the improvement of the profession. Colegio Dental del Liceo de Manila was the first dental school established under the leadership of Gregorio R. Mateo, Antonio Oliveros, Crispulo Layoc and others. This was later renamed the Philippine Dental College consisted of three years professional course leading to the degree of D.D.S. Gregorio Agramon ably edited the Odontologia Filipina, the official organ of the society as an offshoot of the Sociedad Dental del Filipinas.
Later, more dental schools were established in the country. These schools were: The University of the Philippines (1915), National UniversityCentro Escolar University (1925) and the Manila College of Dentistry (1929). The last three universities mentioned offered a three-year course leading to the degree of D.D.S. while the University of the Philippines offered a four-year course leading to the same degree. Later, it adopted the three-year course leading to D.D.S. and offered an additional one year post graduate course to the degree of D.D.M. Only high school graduates were allowed to enroll in the school of dentistry in all the universities mentioned. During this time, American Dental officers from the United States Army took time out to teach dentistry in some of these schools. Noted among these were Col. George G. Graham, Periodontology; Maj. Harry Smalley, Prosthesis and Maj. Thomas Page, Operative Dentistry. (1925),In 1924, a flash of new dentists graduated. For mutual benefits they organized the National Dental Association. The first president was Dr. Francisco Tecson. This organization published its official organ, The National Dental Review with Dr. Eladio Aldecoa, editor.
Development in dental education progressed as the 1929 Philippine Legislature passed a law known as Act No. 3538 lengthening the dental course from three to four years and in 1930 enacted a reciprocity provision forbidding foreign dentists from practicing in the Philippines if they came from countries which did not grant same privilege to Filipino dentists. Four years after this law was passed, another was introduced which would practically kill dentistry as a profession because the bill provided that medical practitioners could engage in dentistry without taking the dental examinations. Dr. Victorino G. Villa and Dr. Gervasio Eraña fought bitterly the passage of this bill but to no avail. Very luckily, Governor General Frank Murphy vetoed it.In 1936, the United States’ dental education adopted a minimum two-year pre-dental course as a pre-requirement for the study of dentistry. This greatly disturbed the Philippine dental schools set-up. Further development along the line was cut short by the outbreak of World War II.Ten years before World War II dental practice was fairly advanced due to importation of dental materials from the United States. During the Japanese occupation in 1942-1945, the dentists were either hesitant or afraid to practice. As a result of this, periodontal disease became rampant. School curricula were made to fit the occupationists’ propaganda. The few who practiced showed resourcefulness in meeting the demands of the profession.
During the Chaotic war in the country, Filipino dentists remained ignorant as to the advances made in the field of dentistry in the United States. So, when the United States and Armed Forces Liberated the Philippines, dentists began to be active again and the two organizations that existed before the war were finally unified and the Philippine Dental Association was born.Under one national organization, dentists were united and made great efforts to catch up with the developments in dental science from foreign countries. The official organ of the organization which was the Journal of the Philippine Dental Association made its first issue in January 1948 and had consistently informed the interested readers the recent developments of dental science in many countries.
Two years after the war, dental equipments were very much improved and there developed an overflow of students seeking admission in dental schools. As a result, four new dental schools were established. In 1948, the Philippine College of Dental Medicine was opened and later renamed the College of Dentistry of the University of the East. In the Visayan Islands three institutions were founded. These were: Southwestern Colleges, Iloilo City Colleges and the University of San Agustin.Dr. Victorino G. Villa, the Dean of College of Dentistry of the University of the Philippines contributed much to the advancement of dentistry in the country. His paper on the detino-enamel article carried Philippine dentistry around the world. Dr. Villa’s researches appeared in publications in the United States, since then. Mean while, Dr. Luz. C. Macapanpan made contributions along histology and added to the effort of Filipino dentists in research.
There were also advances in dental legislation in the country during the post war it was then that the Philippine Dental Association played its major part in the enactment of the new Dental Law. In 1948, the Congress of the Philippines enacted H.B. 2783 and was signed into Republic Act No. 417 by President Elpidio Quirino. This law specifically provided for practical tests in the dental board examinations; imposed a two-year pre-dental course as admission requirement for the study of dentistry; set and increased the penal provision for illegal practice of dentistry; and effected changes in the qualifications and tenure of office and duties of the members of the Board of Dental Examiners. Congressman Ricardo Y. Ladrido also a dentist, sponsored other legislations which improved dentistry in the country. To mention one., was the Republic Act No. 481, separating the Dental Corps from the Medical Service and creating it as a separate technical service of the Armed Forces of the Philippines. In the years between 1945 and 1957, several changes were introduced in clinical dentistry due to these following factors: (1) the professionals’ growth in dental schools and influx of foreign literature; (2) the increase in the number of dentists coming from the United States and (3) the efforts of organized dentistry in conducting regular scientific meetings and the conventions held annually by the Philippine Dental Association.
The New Society initiated by President Ferdinand E. Marcos a bright hope in the advancement of dentistry in the country. The Philippine Dental Association which is a member of the Asian Pacific Dental Federation is hosting its 8th Congress on February 7-12, 1977 at the Philippine Convention Center ( a new structure under the New Society). The Philippine participation on this Congress manifests a strong determination of the Filipino dentist advancing dental technology in the country. This is all due to the efforts of the active members of the Philippine Dental Association, the bulwark of dentistry in the Philippines.It is surmised that in the future, all persons and agencies concerned will never tire to pursue and accomplish its objectives for the betterment of the health and welfare of the Filipinos.